• Resource Type: Audio
    Level: Basic
    Category: Style/Genre
    by John Nix, MacKenzie Parrott
    This 11:26 minute clip was heard on Science Friday on National Public Radio on 5/27/2016. Vocologists John Nix and MacKenzie Parrott provide explanations of the use of vocal fry in pop music, and other genres of singing. This clip includes excerpts of The Star Spangled Banner sung with and without vocal fry. Parrots provides results of the study regarding listener preferences. Scientific explanation of the laryngeal mechanism for vocal fry is minimal.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    Category: Style/Genre
    by Mary Saunders-Barton
    Saunders-Barton gives a historical background to the development of a musical play or the musical and explains how vocal qualities evolved to match the demands. She explains that the vocal demands now call for very refined coordination of the C.T. and C.A. muscles. She also mentions how the vocal styles intended for legit shows such as Carousel are now changing and we have to become more open minded as singers and listeners.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Advanced
    Category: Style/Genre
    by Daniel Zangger Borch, Johan Sundberg,
    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Advanced
    Category: Style/Genre
    by R. A. Rischar
    This dissertationaddresses the vocal stylisms of vocal ornamentations used in popular African American ballads in the 1990s. This type of singing is common in many forms of pop music.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Category: Style/Genre
    by N. Tracy
    Neal discusses his nine "ingredients" for singing rock music organically: text emphasis, emotional affectations such as the "growl" (and includes exercises on how to produce the growl), speech-like text delivery, shorter vowels, and back beating, to name a few. He assumes one is familiar with musical terminology.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Advanced
    Category: Style/Genre
    by Daniel K. Robinson
    This dissertation discusses the role of the worship leader throughout history and in contemporary worship settings. Robinsons research is comprehensive and extremely informative. For his reasearch, Robinson used the ethnography techniques of survey and online interviews. Robinson investigated the musical, theological and vocal training of several worship leaders and "The study draws conclusions from the four structural pillars of enquiry (construct, culture, environment and voice) and delivers nineteen distinctive features that distinguish the Contemporary Worship Singer as a unique vocalist in the wider community of singers." The author admonishes singing teachers "to correctly identify the individual singer’s worship setting and correctly nominate the most appropriate vocal discipline."
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Basic
    Category: Style/Genre
    by Bruce Bartlett, Crown Audio International
    Most contemporary worship services utilize some sort of amplification, and this article helps demystify the types of microphones a worship leader or singer might use in services, along with suggestions of how to best implement amplification in different situations.
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Advanced
    Category: Style/Genre
    by Leigh Carriage
    In 2004 Californian singer and harpist Joanna Newsom, released her first album The Milk Eyed Mender with a vocal approach that features many child-like qualities with glottal fries and vocal squeaks, which are at times rather unwieldy. This great start to her career later resulted in her getting nodules, which required surgery. As part of her recovery she worked with a speech therapist and vocal teacher to regain her voice and be able to sing safely again. The result, heard on her latest CD Have One On Me (2010), is a dramatically different vocal sound, with qualities that are richer in her lower register, restrained with less overall constriction or affectation. Ironically, vocalists that aim to construct a new sound based on their perception of what is required in the industry, actually often become/are derivative. There ends up being a process of deconstruction with regard to affectations, embellishment, manipulation of tone in order to discover the essence of their voices’ abilities and tone colour. This paper will examine the idea of uniqueness and its place in contemporary vocal practice, training, education and the industry. It will also explore the impacts on longevity, vocal damage and possible limitations as well as strategies for the contemporary vocal teacher. The idea raises other questions of vocal construction and its meaning, as well as the question of whether the pathways to these vocal sounds also employ good vocal OH&S practices.

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