Anatomy & Physiology

  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Jean Westerman Gregg
    posted 2 years ago
    A paper presented at the Fifth International Congress of Voice Teachers, Helsinki. In conclusion, the author urges, for optimal communication through speech or sing, every speech or voice teacher needs to have complete knowledge of the movements of the muscles in the vocal tract required for the phonological system of the language being sung.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Robert T. Sataloff
    posted 2 years ago
    From an assumption that far little has been written about the nose, the author discusses its anatomy, nosebleeds, obstruction, fracture, various growths,etc.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Ingo R. Titze
    posted 2 years ago
    Much has been written concerning the function of the vocal folds. This article speaks to the function of the vocal fold cells, an aspect about which little has been written.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Advanced
    by Ingo R. Titze
    posted 2 years ago
    Titze reports on the continuing research into this naturally occurring substance in the body that may one day prove beneficial in distributing moisture evenly over the vocal folds. Promising as this is, the author notes that "we must give voice scientists some time to solve this puzzle." [pp. 51-52]
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Deirdre D. Michael
    posted 2 years ago
    The first of a series of articles, the author wishes to provide facts that can clarify myths about vocal technique or the vocal mechanism. Dr. Michael is Assistant Professor in the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota Medical School. (For the second installment, see vol. 67, no. 4, March/April 2011: 417-421.)
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Deirdre D. Michael
    posted 2 years ago
    Michael responds to a Letter to the Editor regarding muscle use in breathing.
  • Resource Type: Print
    by Ingo R. Titze
    posted 2 years ago
    The development of vocal fold tissues to accommodate vibration over large pitch ranges is nothing short of a miracle. An experiment (which cannot be performed) would be to expose one vocal fold of a human being to normal daily vibration from birth to adulthood while preventing the other vocal fold from vibrating at all. We could then answer questions about whether such specialized tissue development is driven purely by the applied forces or partly by genetics.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Ingo R. Titze
    posted 2 years ago
    With regard to fundamental frequency, sound level (SL) increases about 6 dB/octave, all else being equal. This is the primary reason why females often outsing males on the opera stage if they sing an octave higher. With regard to lung pressure, SL increases about 6-9 dB/with every doubling of lung pressure. The major phenomenon here is increase in peak glottal airflow. The frequency spectrum affects loudness perception if the sound is more than a simple tone.
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Deirdre D. Michael
    posted 2 years ago
    Continuing the series begun in 2010, Michael aims to "clarify misconceptions about vocal production.” In this installment she notes of the titular myth, "Like many of the anatomically incorrect images we use routinely in the studio, this advise is well motivated, but can have unintended consequences.” For part one see 66, no. 5 (547-551); part two 67, no. 4 (417-421); part three 68, 4 (419-425).
  • Resource Type: Print
    Level: Basic
    by Deirdre D. Michael
    posted 2 years ago
    Continuing the series begun in 2010, Michael aims to "clarify misconceptions about vocal production.” In this installment she addresses three pervasive _myths”: 1) that the vocal folds are "chords” (sic); 2), that one can sing "on” or "off” the cords (sic); and 3), that falsetto is produced with _false vocal folds.” For part one see 66, no. 5 (547-551); part three 68, no. 4 (419-425); part four 69, no. 2 (167-172).
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by Ingo R. Titze, National Center for Voice and Speech
    posted 2 years ago
    Dr. Titze and other experts explain vocal production by means of analogies to how a car works. This is highly simplified, but graphics are helpful. A highlight is a famous movie scene, in which the voice signal sounds as it would without the filtering of the vocal tract.
  • Resource Type: Video
    by National Center for Voice and Speech
    posted 2 years ago
    This very brief (1 minute) video shows a demonstration of the action of the cricothyroid muscle in elongating and thinning the vocal folds, using an excised cow larynx.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level:
    by National Center for Voice and Speech
    posted 2 years ago
    This very brief (1 minute) video shows a demonstration of the action of the lateral cricoarytenoids and interaryenoids in adducting the vocal folds and closing the posterior glottic gap, using an excised cow larynx. THere is a biref demonstration of both the posterior cricoarytenoid and the cricothyroid muscles.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by AnatomyZone
    posted 2 years ago
    This 12-minute video uses 3-D computer graphics to elucidate the cartilagenous framework of the larynx, including the muscular attachments.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by Robert T. Sataloff
    posted 2 years ago
    This 90-minute video shows a presentation given by Dr. Robert Sataloff at the 2008 National Conference of the National Association of Teachers of Singing. It provides a basic overview of essentials of anatomy and physiology that singing teachers should understand, as well as an overview of medical conditions that affect the voice, and basic concepts of evaluation and treatment.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by AnatomyZone
    posted 2 years ago
    This 8-minute video uses 3-D computer graphics to give a clear basic introduction to the muscles attached to the cricoid cartilage.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by AnatomyZone
    posted 2 years ago
    This 6-minute video uses 3-D computer graphics to give a clear basic introduction to the muscles attached to the hyoid bone and tongue. It does not cover the intrinsic muscles of the tongue.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by AnatomyZone
    posted 2 years ago
    This 10-minute video provides an explanation of muscle function of the vocal tract using 3-D computer graphics. This video covers muscle functions at the most basic and fundamental level.
  • Resource Type: Video
    by AnatomyZone
    posted 2 years ago
    This 15-minute video provides an in-depth, 3-D description of the mucosa of the larynx, and helpful breakdown of the vestibule, "true" and "false" vocal folds.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by Bastian Medical Media
    posted 2 years ago
    This 15-minute video uses models, diagrams and several endoscopy videos to demonstrate the anatomy and phyisology of the vocal tract, touching briefly on the airway's role in swallowing and focusing primarily on speech. Endoscopy videos are included, showing the difference between healthy and damaged vocal folds.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by www.3dyoga.com
    posted 2 years ago
    This very short video shows a 3-D representation of the diaphragm's movement during respiration.
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Basic
    by Zygote Media Group
    posted 2 years ago
    Formerly Google Body, Zygote Body is a web application by Zygote Media Group that renders manipulable 3D anatomical models of the human body. Several layers from muscle tissues down to blood vessels can be removed or made transparent to allow better study of individual body parts. Most of the body parts are labelled and searchable. The models do not incorporate movement.
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Basic
    by Lions Voice Clinic, University of Minnesota
    posted 2 years ago
    This webpage provides a very basic introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the larynx, and how the voice works. Diagrams are highly schematic.
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Basic
    by Ahmet Sinav, M.D.
    posted 2 years ago
    An interactive diagram of the larynx. This resource demonstrates how the larynx is constructed and how different parts of the larynx work separately and together. Includes visuals of how the intrinsic muscles of the larynx work. A wonderful resource for any undergraduate pedagogy class.
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Basic
    by Division of Anatomy - Faculty of Medicine - University of Toronto
    posted 2 years ago
    This interactive resource provides animated views of the internal structures of the larynx and the mucosa, allowing the user to view animations of muscle contraction in all planes, complete with descriptions and definitions. Additionally, images of a larynx dissection, video clips of normal vocal fold function and of vocal fold pathologies, and some clinical case studies are available. Learning objectives and self-quizzes are also included.
  • Resource Type: Web
    Level: Basic
    by Scott Null
    posted 2 years ago
    A stylized medical animation of the normal breathing cycle.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by Lions Voice Clinic, University of Minnesota
    posted 2 years ago
    This very short video clip shows the larynx during laughter.
  • Resource Type: Video
    Level: Basic
    by Lions Voice Clinic, University of Minnesota
    posted 2 years ago
    This very short video clip shows the larynx during whistling
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