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This voice science article examines the timbre differences in Musical Theater and Classical Singing. The author examines the different demands of each singer and takes into account microphone usage and the number of weekly performances. Björkner asserts that subglottal pressure is the main player in controlling vocal intensity. Five male opera singers and five mail MT singers were involved in this study, which seeks to determing "voice source characteristics" and formant frequencies at two fundamental frequencies (f0) and over a large dynamic range. Results indicate that MT and opera singers both sing with equally pressed phonation and that the singer's formant plays a large role in classical vs. MT singing.
This is a well-done research article showing the effects of vocal fry on listener perceptions. The article includes audio files of speakers producing a sentence with and without vocal fry.
A new edition of the MADDE Synthesizer by Svante Granqvist was introduced in the spring of 2011 that added the top octave of the keyboard and a keyboard display of formants and partials. These improvements have rendered MADDE an especially clear pedagogic tool for explaining and demonstrating the basic acoustic elements of the voice source and the vocal tract filter, as well as all source/filter interactions. This paper shows how MADDE can be used to explain and display the effect of the number of source harmonics, the roll off in power of the source spectrum, the implication of roll off on the laryngeal registration of the voice source, the locations and bandwidths of vocal tract formants, the acoustic effects of harmonic/formant relationships and crossings, such as open timbre, “turning over,” close timbre, and “whoop” timbre.
Titze reports on the continuing research into this naturally occurring substance in the body that may one day prove beneficial in distributing moisture evenly over the vocal folds. Promising as this is, the author notes that "we must give voice scientists some time to solve this puzzle." [pp. 51-52]
This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band.
In 2004 Californian singer and harpist Joanna Newsom, released her first album The Milk Eyed Mender with a vocal approach that features many child-like qualities with glottal fries and vocal squeaks, which are at times rather unwieldy. This great start to her career later resulted in her getting nodules, which required surgery. As part of her recovery she worked with a speech therapist and vocal teacher to regain her voice and be able to sing safely again. The result, heard on her latest CD Have One On Me (2010), is a dramatically different vocal sound, with qualities that are richer in her lower register, restrained with less overall constriction or affectation. Ironically, vocalists that aim to construct a new sound based on their perception of what is required in the industry, actually often become/are derivative. There ends up being a process of deconstruction with regard to affectations, embellishment, manipulation of tone in order to discover the essence of their voices’ abilities and tone colour. This paper will examine the idea of uniqueness and its place in contemporary vocal practice, training, education and the industry. It will also explore the impacts on longevity, vocal damage and possible limitations as well as strategies for the contemporary vocal teacher. The idea raises other questions of vocal construction and its meaning, as well as the question of whether the pathways to these vocal sounds also employ good vocal OH&S practices.
This dissertation discusses the role of the worship leader throughout history and in contemporary worship settings. Robinsons research is comprehensive and extremely informative. For his reasearch, Robinson used the ethnography techniques of survey and online interviews. Robinson investigated the musical, theological and vocal training of several worship leaders and "The study draws conclusions from the four structural pillars of enquiry (construct, culture, environment and voice) and delivers nineteen distinctive features that distinguish the Contemporary Worship Singer as a unique vocalist in the wider community of singers." The author admonishes singing teachers "to correctly identify the individual singer’s worship setting and correctly nominate the most appropriate vocal discipline."
The essay sheds light on the ongoing efforts to define what is meant by efficient voice production, that which gives the most output for the least effort. Most pedagogues, clinicians, and voice scientists have wrestled somewhat with this problem because voices are not often big enough or enduring enough for a given vocal task.
In her article; The Technical Core: An Inside View, Joan Melton writes on her research and findings from ultrasound imaging (USI) of abdominal muscle activity while voicing to workshop participants at a conference on Performance Breath, at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London. Although the study only focused on the core muscular system of the singer the results shed light on some of what is actually happening when a performance breath is taken.
DeFatta and Sataloff explore the scientific studies that have focused on this fundamental component of voice study. While they note that "no consensus can be reached based on available scientific evidence, they suggest that "the continued use of warm-up and cool-down exercises" seems appropriate and prudent.
Presents evidence suggesting that a constriction and sympathetic vibration of the aryepiglottic folds is responsible for the distortion in some types of noisy phonation (eg. "growl").
This dissertationaddresses the vocal stylisms of vocal ornamentations used in popular African American ballads in the 1990s. This type of singing is common in many forms of pop music.
Rather than a specific set of guidelines for singers to address injury, the authors explore methods of educating students about this topic through classes and seminars. While they describe several viable approaches, they conclude, "more research is necessary to better understand how voice educators can serve the health needs of singing students.”
This article was written from a presentation given at the Voice Foundation's 1999 "Care For The Professional Voice" Symposium in Philadelphia. It compares belt and classical vocal techniques using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), video fluoroscopy, and video laryngoscope on one subject. "The goal of this study was to gain evidence about the relationship between the thyroid and cricoid cartilages and how they might tilt or angle in classical versus belting." Popeil discusses terminology for the belt and the findings of this study.
In this article Ingo Titze presents research from an informal study conducted in Salt Lake City in 2010. Titze discusses the shift in formant frequencies that take place when a singer switches between classical singing and belt singing.
Many medications prescribed commonly by otolaryngologists can cause negative psychiatric side effects. Serious drug interactions from the combination of some of these medications and other psychiatric medications can also occur and are potentially fatal.
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