In this article, Andrew White provides an in-depth description of belting, including the muscles involved, airflow rate, larynx position, and resonance strategies.
Awareness of the acoustic registration events caused by changing interactions between the lower harmonics of the voice source and the first formant of the vocal tract can assist both teacher and student in working out a smooth, comfortable transition through the passaggio into the upper range of the male voice. This paper explains how knowledge and anticipation of these events, and of the passive vowel modifications that accompany them, can form the basis for effective pedagogic strategies. A relatively stable tube (vocal tract) length is necessary for timbral consistency and balance across the fundamental frequency range, since this can stabilize the general location of all formants and especially the singer’s formant cluster. However, upon ascending the scale, untrained males instinctively tend to activate muscles that shorten the tube in order to preserve the strong first formant/second harmonic (F1/H2) acoustic coupling of open timbre, resulting in “yell” timbre. If tube length and shape are kept stable during pitch ascent, the yell can be avoided by allowing the second harmonic to pass through and above the first formant. This results in the timbral shift referred to as covering or “turning over,” a shift which enables avoidance of the laryngeal muscular adjustments associated with pressed phonation. The variety of first formant locations, vowel by vowel, where these shifts occur creates opportunities for developing effective strategies for training the male passaggio.
The purpose of this study is to develop an introductory guide for teaching music theater vocal pedagogy and styles. This guide is intended for experienced classical teachers. The conclusions of the research on mix/belt singing revealed significant differences between music theater vocal pedagogy and classical vocal pedagogy. To aid the classical teachers in learning about music theater vocal pedagogy and styles, the guide details the results of the pedagogical research on mix/belt singing and compares and contrasts the pedagogy to classical singing.
This article discusses how the vocal tract is used in different styles of singing. It encourages voice teachers to use style-specific pedagogy with their students.
Neal discusses his nine "ingredients" for singing rock music organically: text emphasis, emotional affectations such as the "growl" (and includes exercises on how to produce the growl), speech-like text delivery, shorter vowels, and back beating, to name a few. He assumes one is familiar with musical terminology.
A voice is acoustically strong if the glottal flow can be reduced from a high value to a low value in a short time interval. The total collapse of flow per second is called the maximum flow declination rate. It can be increased by increasing lung pressure, by increasing vibration at the bottom of the vocal fold, or by narrowing the acoustic tube immediately above the vocal folds. In practice, a combination of these control strategies is probably utilized by singers.
It is the responsibility of the speech-language pathologist to determine what muscular patterns and behavioral habits have contributed to a laryngeal disorder. Over the years, certain recurring problems have emerged which might be helpful for the teacher to review.
The article assists singing teachers and others in understanding when a laryngologist (voice specialist) should be consulted, and especially when one should be consulted urgently.
The author suggests that the Favorable Vowel Chart included in the writings of Berton Coffin over thirty years ago, needs to be resurrected, employing new theories of vowel modification and voice registers.
This is actually a thesis that examines the development of voice pedagogy in music theater and specfically examines techniques used for female sopranos and high belters. The author specifically attempts to tackle issues of breath management, vocal health, registration, and other aspects, and focuses specifically on those female singing actresses and roles that often demand a crossover style of singing.
"[Intubation] occurs under deep sedation or general anesthesia to maintain/support the airway and to provide a means for oxygenation (oxygen delivery) and mechanical ventilation.” Focusing on short term intubation, less than twenty-four hours in duration, the authors give a wealth of advice for vocal performers, including what questions to ask before the surgery; what to expect in the operating room; and expectations for the postoperative period.
An increasing quantity of data and theory about how motor skills are acquired is emerging. This article investigates certain key concepts and their possible applications in voice training. The author writes that the study of motor learning, a respected science, allows us to view voice teaching in a new light, one that considerably illumines voice pedagogy.
It is important for singers and teachers to be familiar with the body_x0090_s major hormones and their effect on vocal fold function. The authors first focus on aspects of the female voice (such as the effects of the menstrual cycle) and explore issues relevant to all singers, including the effects of thyroid hormones and pituitary gland hormones.
Vocal fry is a vocal production that is marked by a low fundamental frequency (below 70 Hz), low subglottic pressure, and minimal air flow. This article describes in detail how vocal fry is produced, explores a variety of pedagogical opinions about fry and its utility in the teaching of singing, and provides sample exercises the authors have found successful for addressing specific vocal problems.
The author has a long-term goal to understand and appreciate proven exercises and vocalizes used by singing teachers. One such exercise is the downward glide in pitch on a vowel [u] or [o], beginning on about D5 and ending one to two octaves lower.
It has long been the hallmark of a fine teacher to assign proper vocalises to the student. From a scientific perspective, the messa di voce, staccato and sustaining long phrases are discussed.
Many singing teachers, voice therapists, and acting voice teachers employ semi-occluded vocal tract postures in their teaching. Some of these flow-resistant postures are an integral part of what some authorities have referred to as resonant voice training. The practice is discussed at length.
The author addresses, from a practical stand-point, some of the challenges that singers face with regard to establishing the feet and legs as a flexible base of support for singing. She focuses on only a part of the anatomical structure that is used for the singing experience.
It is helpful for singing teachers to have a basic familiarity with the nature, evaluation, and treatment of thyroid cancer, a relatively common form of the disease. Normal thyroid hormone levels are important to laryngeal function, so thyroid damage even from medical cancer treatment can cause voice problems in singers, but it will not necessarily end a vocal career.
This article discusses the differences in laryngeal position, diction, and registration found in CCM and Classical singing.
This article written by Matt Edwards discusses the singers' changing marketplace, and the pedagogy, science and audio technology of contemporary commercial music. He explains the misconceptions that Pop/Rock music is damaging to the voice.
The development of vocal fold tissues to accommodate vibration over large pitch ranges is nothing short of a miracle. An experiment (which cannot be performed) would be to expose one vocal fold of a human being to normal daily vibration from birth to adulthood while preventing the other vocal fold from vibrating at all. We could then answer questions about whether such specialized tissue development is driven purely by the applied forces or partly by genetics.
The exercises given are those that have strong physiologic justification and are prevalent in the majority of studios.
This article uses data to make the point that students trained in current collegiate vocal pedagogy programs may not be prepared for the marketplace in vocal performance. It includes very current information about finances of the music industry.
The authors note, "it is clear from all of the studies to date that singers, and even nonsingers, have a high prevalence of findings [after examination] that physicians would diagnose as abnormalities." They suggest that singers undergo screening while they are healthy to help voice care professionals better assess their condition should an injury occur.
emailed author for abstract
Neurological voice disorders are due to abnormalities of the brain and/or the nerves of the body that impair control of the muscles. The more common neurological diseases discussed are strokes, Parkinson's, spasmodic dysphonia, benign essential tremor, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis.
In a previous issue the author proposed a new way of looking at pitch-vowel interaction in singing as promulgated by Berton Coffin. In a yearly update, Dr. Titze writes that the basic goal of understanding why certain vowels are favored at certain pitches has not changed.
Contrasting operatic and musical theatre voice production, the authors seek “to explain the female opera-belt contrast in terms of source-vocal tract interaction.” The study shows that despite aesthetic differences, many of the technical approaches overlap between these otherwise markedly different genres.
This 33 minute tutorial was presented at the Voice Foundation's Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, in June 2016, by Dr. David Meyer, Professor of Voice at Shenandoah University. This lecture explains the basics of vocal pedagogy, and includes discussion of what the field of vocal pedagogy needs from the field of voice science.
Recently, the importance of posture to well being has become popularized through the works of authors such as Alexander, Pilates, Feldenkrais, and others. Physiotherapy and osteopathy have become integral to the field of sports medicine, and to the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. Only very recently, however, has consideration of such sciences been applied to voice research and rehabilitation. The authors believe that it is helpful for singers to be familiar with the latest concepts and perspectives on posture from the medical and alternative medical literature.
The article explores on the curriculum in a music theater education. It notes on the required skills needed to be fit in such type of musical education which includes mastery in singing, acting and movements as stand-alone skills while integrating and aligning them, hence, basic classes that will provide future performers are needed in any undergraduate music theater programs. Furthermore, it cites on various methods and ideas that will help future performers develop connection and alignment in singing, acting and movements.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux is a common, if not the most common source of laryngeal pathology, and may be a contribution to disorders ranging from slight, but distressing voice change to laryngeal cancer. Causes and treatments of gastric reflux are discussed. The author stresses that antirefluxogenic behavioral and dietary controls should minimize the need for medications, and maximize the intended effect of medications. Readers are strongly advised to seek medical evaluation via endoscopy and evaluations should atypical throat or voice problems persist for longer than several weeks.
The study analyzes clinical and biomedical evidence for four aspects of vocal hygiene: the promotion of adequate hydration, the avoidance of caffeine intake, the avoidance of milk products, and advocacy of a warm-up before extended periods of voice use.
Modification involves shading vowels with respect to the location of vowel formants, so the sung pitch or one of its harmonics receives an acoustical boost by being near a formant. The goals of modification include a unified quality, throughout the entire range, smoother transitions between register, enhanced dynamic range and control, and improved intelligibility.
This article appeared in the Journal of Voice in May 2012. The article summary states that this study "was a preliminary attempt 1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in young adult college-aged American speakers and 2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry for these speakers."
In addition to aerodynamic considerations, Titze observes, a vocal tract air column that vibrates (up and down) above the vocal folds can create a reactive push and pull on the tissue surfaces so that vocal fold vibration is reinforced a vocal tract that is narrow (semioccluded) in some region along its length (e.g., at the lips or the epiglottis) helps to produce this favorable push-pull.
This very brief (1 minute) video shows a demonstration of the action of the cricothyroid muscle in elongating and thinning the vocal folds, using an excised cow larynx.
To achieve a more resonant voice, a formant is not placed directly on a harmonic, but rather slightly above a harmonic. Stated conversely, the harmonic chases the formant, but never quite catches up with it. The advantage of this maneuver is a strengthening of all harmonics, not just a single one.
This brief article gives an introduction to a growing phenomenon in voice teaching, particularly in collegiate voice - that of teaching transgendered students. Ms. Bos offers practical advice and some further resources.
Vocal fold hypomobility can result from a myriad of disorders of nerves, muscles, or cricoarytenoid joint function. Vocal fold hypomobility may manifest with symptoms that range from breathiness, vocal fatigue, and decreased range to aphonia, aspiration, and shortness of breath.